I tried to answer this question at length in a review of Robert Shiller’s Finance and the Good Society. But if you want the short version, look no further than Barry Ritholtz’s list. One could easily expand it into an ever-growing wiki, but sometimes succinctness is supreme. Here’s Ritholtz on the multiple intermediary problem:
Too many people have a hand in your pocket[.] The list of people nicking you as an investor is enormous. Insiders (CEO/CFO/Boards of Directors) transfer wealth from shareholders to themselves, with the blessing of corrupted Compensation Consultants. Active mutual funds charge way too much for sub par performance. 401(k)s are disastrous. NYSE and NASDAQ Exchanges have been paid to allow a HFT tax on every other investor. FASB and accountants have done an awful job, allowing corporations to mislead investors with junk balance statements. The media’s job is to sell advertising, not provide you with intelligent advice. The regulators have been captured.
And while we’re on the topic of the personal consequences of finance, do take a look at Helaine Olen’s Pound Foolish. Olen has been making the intellectual podcast rounds, and offers a devastating portrait of a personal finance industry warped by ideology and greed.