Category: Administrative Law

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New Op-ed by Donna Lenhoff: Major reforms needed to make the “Me Too Movement” viable

Over the past few months, the #MeToo movement has exposed an epidemic of sexual harassment and retaliation in the workplace. But without substantial reforms to our legal system, that movement may be all for naught.

So begins an important new op-ed in today’s Washington Post.  The piece is titled: The #MeToo movement will be in vain if we don’t make these changes.

Donna Lenhoff

The author is Donna Lenhoff (more about her in a moment). This op-ed brings to the forefront legal issues central to the success of the “Me Too Movement.”

“What has become all too clear,” writes Lenhoff, “is that [Title VII and the mechanisms for enforcing it] — designed decades ago to redress and deter harassment and retaliation — are woefully inadequate, for four significant reasons.”

  1. First, while the threat of large damages can be effective in getting management to take preventive action, under Title VII, pain-and-suffering and punitive damages combined are capped. . . “
  2. “Second, many companies insist that harassment settlements be confidential. . . .”
  3. “Third, the agencies that enforce Title VII have never had the necessary resources . .  .”
  4. “Fourth, private litigation is quite rare considering the prevalence of workplace harassment. . . .”

There is more, much more, but you’ll have to read the entire op-ed. Suffice it to say that Lenhoff’s no-nonsense brand of progressive thinking is needed if real change is to occur.

Meanwhile, here is some info about Donna Lenhoff:

Lenhoff has worked for strong enforcement of laws against workplace discrimination from both inside and outside the federal government.  She served as Senior Civil Rights Advisor in the U.S. Labor Department’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs during the Obama Administration, where she was responsible for updating 35+-year-old sex-discrimination regulations. 

As a staff attorney at the then-Women’s Legal Defense Fund, she was the first person to testify in Congress about sexual harassment. 

She lobbied for EEOC Guidelines on harassment and oversaw women’s groups’ amicus briefs in every major Supreme Court case involving harassment from 1978 to 2000. 

Lenhoff also lobbied for legislative changes to strengthen civil-rights and labor laws that help workers, including the 1991 Civil Rights Act, and led the coalition that advocated for the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. 

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New Book — Manheim & Watts, “The Limits of Presidential Power: A Citizen’s Guide to the Law”

A comprehensive and accurate description of the powers of the President of the United States. The book is intended primarily to benefit non-lawyers in understanding the sources and limits of the President’s powers, and their means of influencing his actions, but the work will be enlightening for lawyers as well.

Justice John Paul Stevens (ret.) 

Both a primer and a sophisticated analysis of the constantly evolving balance of power between the President, the Congress, and the Judiciary.

— U.S. Senator Slade Gorton

Two of my distinguished University of Washington Law School colleagues, Lisa Manheim and Kathryn Watts, have just released a unique and impressive book entitled The Limits of Presidential Power: A Citizen’s Guide to the Law ($7.99 paper) ($2.99 e-book, free with Kindle Unlimited subscriptions via Amazon.). Here is the abstract:

“This one-of-a-kind guide provides a crash course in the laws governing the President of the United States. In engaging and accessible prose, two law professors explain the principles that inform everything from President Washington’s disagreements with Congress to President Trump’s struggles with the courts, and more. Timely and to the point, this guide provides the essential information every informed civic participant needs to know about the laws that govern the president–and what those laws mean for those who want to make their voices heard.”

* * * *

I’ve read this book.  It is a quite accessible and highly reliable overview of the law of presidential power. Here is some of the advance buzz about the book:

This smart and indispensable guide begins where old-fashioned civics leaves off, and talks to troubled and puzzled Americans as adults. The authors demonstrate that the future of our democracy is where it’s always been: in our hands, if only we learn how to invoke the available limits on the power of the president. –Linda Greenhouse 

Prof. Lisa Manheim

Lisa Manheim and Kathryn Watts have written a wonderful book on presidential power, its scope, and its limits. The book is clearly written and easily accessible and is terrific in explaining the authority of the President and the checks on his power. The book is especially timely now, but it is about issues that have arisen since the beginning of the country and that will last as long as the Constitution. Erwin Chemerinsky 

The authors have provided a truly impressive chapter on climate change that is both sweeping and compelling, and have done so with crystal clarity and gripping narrative drive. As a result, the climate change chapter, like the rest of this book, offers every reader not only a ready understanding of a vital and complex issue and of the varying roles the government has played in shaping the issue, but also of the opportunity–for better or worse–that stakeholders and members of the public have to shape U.S. climate change policy going forward. If this is the only piece on climate change policy that a person reads, then he or she will be very well-informed and well-equipped to engage with the issue. — Joseph Goffman 

Prof. Kathryn Watts

A concise and crisp primer on the limitations of presidential power. The subject is timely and well worth pondering. This work should interest students concerned with law and the separation of powers and American politics, as well as the general public. — David M. O’Brien

In America, no one is above the law, not even the president. For anyone who has ever wondered ‘can he really do that?’ this clear and concise book on presidential power is a must read. Likewise, for everyone who cares about democracy and the rule of law, Watts and Manheim are your best guides to effective citizenship. — Kellye Testy

Accessible and interesting, this book is a must-read for anyone who wants to understand both the powers of the presidency and the limits on presidential power. Brianne Gorod 
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Rurality and “Government Retreat”

The New York Times ran a story yesterday, dateline Roseburg, Oregon (population 21,000), headlined “Where Anti-Tax Fervor Means All Government Will Cease.”  This is not exactly breaking “news.”  This story has been around in some form, with varying degrees of urgency, for about five years.  See earlier installments here, here and here.  The gist of it is that many rural counties in the West which rely on federal funding streams (e.g., PILT, Secure Rural Schools and Community Self Determination Act monies, covered by stories herehere and here), have seen those monies taper off and in some cases dry up.

I want to be clear before going further that the federal funding streams these counties rely on are not giveaways, at least by my assessment.  They are intended to replace, in some small measure, tax dollars the counties cannot generate because property taxes cannot be levied on federal lands, which comprise vast portions of the West.  (The existence of such extensive public lands is also associated with other controversies, of course; read more here and here).  The existence of public lands may also have an impact on other ways local governments might choose to plump up their public coffers (read more here and here), and the existence of these lands limits the ways in which locals can earn a living, as in the timber industry or in ranching.

As a result of these funding cuts, many nonmetropolitan counties–those least likely to have other funding sources (taxes on robust business enterprises, for example)–are  cutting critical services.  Most news reports to date have focused on cuts to law enforcement, which has cultivated some “informal justice”/citizens “militias” type activity.  But this NYTimes story focuses on cuts to other services.  Highlighted in the story and illustrated by a photo is the fact that Douglas County–at 5,134 square miles, more than 2.5 times the size of Delaware and nearly as large as Connecticut–is about to close the last of the 11 library branches it previously boasted.  The one in Roseburg, the county seat, will be the last to go.  Kirk Johnson, NY Times reporter based out west, reports that Douglas County residents recently voted down a ballot measure that “would have added about $6/month to the tax bill on a median-priced home,” a measure that would have saved the libraries from crisis and closure.

I could digress here into a long discussion about how critically important libraries are for all sorts of reasons, not least these days that–in my suburb and many other California locales–they accommodate many homeless people during the day, providing them a lifeline (the Internet) to identifying and getting services.  I know that my family and I use our neighborhood library on a weekly basis, even though I have ready access to a fabulous academic library.  A 2013 story about the particular benefits of libraries in rural communities is here, and broadband is a big part of the story.   A more recent library story out of rural northern California about the power of books in children’s lives is here.

But Johnson makes the point that libraries are not the only thing on the chopping block in Douglas County.  The failed library initiative is like many others in Douglas and neighboring counties (e.g., Curry and Josephine) that voters have rejected in the last decade.  Another very sobering illustration of the southwest Oregon situation is the fact that Curry County has only one full-time employee in the elections division of its clerk’s office and therefore may have difficulty holding an election this fall.  (I’ve documented here and here similar phenomena in my home county in Arkansas, another place heavily reliant on PILT because of the presence of public lands set aside as Ozark National Forest and Buffalo National River).

There is so much I could say about this particular rural trend to shrink government, sometimes to an extreme degree.  But I just want to make a few points in regard to theoretical legal geography regarding how spatiality and law are co-constitutive.   I have argued as a related matter that rural society and rural spatiality are co-constituting, as reflected in a less robust presence of law, legal actors, and other institutions and agents of the state in rural places.  I framed it as “space tames law tames space” in a frustrating feedback loop:  it is expensive for the state to do its work when the area to be governed is vast and when residents emotionally and intellectually resist vesting power (including via tax dollars)  in the state.  I would characterize this feedback loop as disabling, though I understand some rural residents of a more libertarian bent would see it as enabling–enabling the individual, that is, fostering self-sufficiency.

My argument about the relative “lawlessness” of rural and remote places has not been uncontroversial.  Lots of folks see small towns as the epitome of order and law-abiding-ness and have pushed back against my argument.  Yet it seems that my point is very well illustrated by this detail from Johnson’s article, which he offers as an illustration of “government retreat”:

It looks like the house on Hubbard Creek Road in Curry County, where owners went for more than 10 years without paying any property taxes at all because the county assessor’s office couldn’t field enough workers to go out and inspect. The house, nestled in the woods with a tidy blue roof and skylights, dodged more than $8,500 in property taxes that would have gone to support the schools, fire district and sheriff, because government had gotten too small to even ask. So things fall even further, with cuts to agencies that actually bring in revenue prompting further cuts down the line.

So there you have it:  a community envisages itself as not needing law, regulation and the state, so it underfunds government to such an extent that the state can no longer support itself and perform (m)any government functions.  This, in turn, further fuels the imaginary–and reality–of an anemic and unhelpful state.  The state is thus discredited, thereby further undermining the state’s ability to justify the raising of revenue or to do, well, much of anything.

Which came first, the chicken or the egg?  the state’s inability to be effective?  or the perception that it would necessarily be ineffective and a consequent decision not to fund it, thereby rendering it (more?) ineffective, unhelpful, and inefficient?

As for when a community goes too far in its retreat from public institutions…well, the defeat of the library tax crossed that line for some.  Johnson quotes a Douglas County resident, 54-year-old Terry Bean, a construction manager who supported the library tax, though he had opposed other local taxes.  In explaining his position he invoked another concept associated with rural livelihoods:  community.

There is conservative, said Bean, flicking a cigarette butt into the bed of his pickup truck, and then there is community. And people got them confused.

The library, he said, was something a person could use — for computers, if not for books — even if that person didn’t have a dime, and he still respects that.

And that, in turn, brings me back to my earlier point:  doesn’t everyone reap communitarian benefits from the public library?  even the richest of folks who may never darken its doors.

Post-Neoliberal Higher Education Policy

The Obama Administration made at least two major contributions to higher education policy. It cracked down on some for-profit colleges, taking on a consumer protection role largely missing from the Bush years. Donald Trump is unlikely to continue that initiative, and may roll it back.

Obama also encouraged income-based repayment (IBR) of student loans. It appears that “the repayment plan proposed by candidate Trump is not too far from the current repayment plans already in existence”–but few know exactly how the policy will play out once a new set of think tankers and lobbyists take over the Department of Education (DOE).

I surveyed higher education finance policy in 2015, in a piece for the Atlantic. I felt at the time that the Sanders plan was by far the best, and that Clinton’s plan could lead incrementally to a better higher ed landscape. However, over the summer I co-authored a longer article on the foundations of higher ed policy with Luke Herrine, Legal Coordinator of the Debt Collective. Herrine does both scholarly and advocacy work. In a project organizing for-profit college students to obtain debt discharges, he saw some of the worst bureaucratic failures of the current DOE.

The same concerns I’ve expressed about health policy also dog education policy. Extreme complexity and baroque targeting of aid make it hard to sustain political support. Just as private insurers have done as much to undermine as to implement the ACA, the servicers at the core of DOE’s student loan management have serially failed the students they are supposed to help.
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UCLA Law Review Vol. 63, Issue 5

Volume 63, Issue 5 (June 2016)
Articles

How Governments Pay: Lawsuits, Budgets, and Police Reform Joanna C. Schwartz 1144
Second-Order Participation in Administrative Law Miriam Seifter 1300
The Freedom of Speech and Bad Purposes Eugene Volokh 1366

 

Comments

Evolving Jurisdiction Under the Federal Power Act: Promoting Clean Energy Policy Giovanni S. Saarman González 1422
Election Speech and Collateral Censorship at the Slightest Whiff of Legal Trouble Samuel S. Sadeghi 1472
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UCLA Law Review Vol. 63, Issue 1

Volume 63, Issue 1 (January 2016)
Articles

Navigating Paroline‘s Wake Isra Bhatty 2
Regional Federal Administration Dave Owen 58
Exhausting Patents Wentong Zheng 122

 

Comments

Post-Deportation Remedy and Windsor‘s Promise Kate Shoemaker 168
Forget Congress: Reforming Campaign Finance Through Mutually Assured Destruction Nick Warshaw 208
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FOIA Requests for Tax Returns

Donald Trump’s refusal thus far to release his tax returns raises an interesting issue.  Tax returns are not subject to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). I can’t just ask the IRS to give me his returns and get them. While this makes sense as a general matter given the privacy concerns involved, I wonder whether the custom of having high public officials release their returns should be codified by making their returns subject to FOIA.

For an ordinary citizen, tax returns should be private unless they are required for a criminal investigation or are subject to a valid subpoena in a civil case.  Presidential candidates (at least the two major party nominees) have voluntarily released their returns for a long time, though I don’t know for how long.  It seems to me that the public’s right to know in this instance overrides a candidate’s privacy interest. We might find out, for instance, that Trump did not pay any federal income tax last year.  I’d like to know if he did, and I think that I have a right to know.  Political pressure may compel him to act, but should that be the only way of obtaining that information?

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The 5 Things Every Privacy Lawyer Needs to Know about the FTC: An Interview with Chris Hoofnagle

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has become the leading federal agency to regulate privacy and data security. The scope of its power is vast – it covers the majority of commercial activity – and it has been enforcing these issues for decades. An FTC civil investigative demand (CID) will send shivers down the spine of even the largest of companies, as the FTC requires a 20-year period of assessments to settle the score.

To many, the FTC remains opaque and somewhat enigmatic. The reason, ironically, might not be because there is too little information about the FTC but because there is so much. The FTC has been around for 100 years!

In a landmark new book, Professor Chris Hoofnagle of Berkeley Law School synthesizes an enormous volume of information about the FTC and sheds tremendous light on the FTC’s privacy activities. His book is called Federal Trade Commission Privacy Law and Policy (Cambridge University Press, Feb. 2016).

This is a book that all privacy and cybersecurity lawyers should have on their shelves. The book is the most comprehensive scholarly discussion of the FTC’s activities in these areas, and it also delves deep in the FTC’s history and activities in other areas to provide much-needed context to understand how it functions and reasons in privacy and security cases.

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The Ultimate Unifying Approach to Complying with All Laws and Regulations

Professor Woodrow Hartzog and I have just published our new article, The Ultimate Unifying Approach to Complying with All Laws and Regulations19 Green Bag 2d 223 (2016)  Our article took years of research and analysis, intensive writing, countless drafts, and endless laboring over every word. But we hope we achieved a monumental breakthrough in the law.  Here’s the abstract:

There are countless laws and regulations that must be complied with, and the task of figuring out what to do to satisfy all of them seems nearly impossible. In this article, Professors Daniel Solove and Woodrow Hartzog develop a unified approach to doing so. This approach (patent pending) was developed over the course of several decades of extensive analysis of every relevant law and regulation.

 

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University of Toronto Law Journal – Volume 66, Number 1, Winter 2016

utlj-logo

University of Toronto Law Journal – Volume 66, Number 1, Winter 2016
Public Law for the Twenty-First Century – special symposium issue

ARTICLES
Introduction: Public law for the twenty-first century
David Dyzenhaus

Polycentricity and queue jumping in public law remedies: A two-track response
Kent Roach

Public law and ordinary legal method: Revisiting Dicey’s approach to droit administratif
Mark D Walters

The lure and the limits of dialogue
Aileen Kavanagh

Adjudicating constitutional rights in administrative law
Tom Hickman

Full text of the University of Toronto Law Journal is available online at UTLJ Online, Project Muse, JSTOR, HeinOnline, Westlaw, Westlaw-CARSWELL, LexisNexis and Quicklaw.