Is Senator Phil Gramm right that economic turmoil is all in our heads, a sort of panic, or are there real problems, suggesting instead a crisis? More generally, how should the current US economic situation be described?
Some descriptive financial terms have fairly settled definitions, although exact classifications can remain contestable. For example, a recession, formally two successive quarters of negative growth, is rarely recognized until an economy is in one. At present, economists are split on whether the US economy is in or near one. A bear market, formally a 20% decline in general equity market prices, is easier to measure, and under that measure, US stock markets are in bear territory (indeed, price levels are not much higher than they were a decade ago).
The terms panic and crisis seem less susceptible to formal definition. Financial panic generally signals an irrational response to perceived economic conditions while crisis, which can include the results of panic, tends to connote a more substantive condition in which structural, cyclical or other forces pose actual acute financial adversity.