The Googlization of Advertising
Search engines are indispensable to the quest for helpful information in our data saturated age. Although custom search engines attract small audiences, the big three—Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft—run the lion share of online searches, with Google performing 62% of U.S. Internet searches and with Yahoo next in line running 17.5% of searches. Not surprisingly, Google attracts a disproportionate share of online advertisers, the main source of revenue for search companies. The recent joint venture advertising agreement between Google and Yahoo heralds the further concentration of online advertising in the search market from three to two hands by allowing Google to sell search ads that display next to Yahoo search results.
This Sunday, the Association of National Advertisers announced its opposition to the Google-Yahoo deal on the grounds that the partnership would “diminish competition, increase concentration of market power, limit choices currently available and raise prices to advertisers.” Frank Pasquale presented spirited and compelling testimony on this issue before the House Judiciary Committee’s Task Force on Competition Policy and Antitrust Laws this summer. (I attended the hearing and highly recommend viewing the C-SPAN recording—see here). As Pasquale brought alive at the hearing, the joint venture agreement would cement Google’s dominance over the online advertising market. Benjamin Edelman of Harvard Business School explains that such excessive market share allows Google to control the ads generally available (and unavailable) to consumers. For instance, in August 2004, Google banned an ad critical of President Bush, but, of course, consumers did not know what they were missing. Worth serious consideration is Pasquale’s concern that the opacity of Google’s practices enables it to conceal any abuse of its soon-to-be overwhelming power in the online advertising market.